What Are Terpenes in Weed

Why Are Terpenes Important?

Key facts

  • Terpenes are fragrant oils that give fruits, vegetables, flowers, and herbs their distinct taste and smell.
  • Cannabis has many terpenes specific to the plant. There are over 100 terpenes unique to the cannabis plant. These chemical compounds give cannabis its scent. For example, myrcene is solely found in the cannabis plant and is responsible for the prevailing smell of all weed varieties.
  • Terpenes, like cannabinoids, are concentrated in the flowers of the female cannabis plant. 

Generally, Cannabis is identified to have a musky aroma, but each strain has a different scent. This difference is attributed to the terpenes present in each type of cannabis plant– hence the definition of the scent of some other strains being floral, earthy, spicy, etc. 

what are terpenes in weed?

Why Are Terpenes Important?

Terpenes give the cannabis plant its aroma. Having the terpene profile of a product is important in choosing a scent and flavor profile you prefer. 

In addition, the terpene profile is a reasonable consideration because some terpenes are perfect for pain and others for inflammation. For example, linalool is a good remedy for reducing symptoms of arthritis.

It’s not all about the smell, though; terpenes also have therapeutic properties on their own. However, they can work more efficiently in tandem with cannabinoids like THC and CBD for our holistic wellbeing, in a phenomenon known as the “Entourage Effect.”

Different Types of Terpenes In Weed

Here are the 12 most popular terpenes that are found in all the legal weeds in Canada. Also listed are other foods and organic materials where these same terpenes can be found.

  1. Caryophyllene: Also found in cloves, cinnamon, and black pepper.
  2. Bisabolol: Also found in chamomile, sage, and candeia.
  3. Humulene: Also found in hops, cloves, and basil.
  4. Myrcene: Also found in lemongrass, thyme, and mangoes.
  5. Limonene: Also found in lemons, oranges, and grapefruits.
  6. Linalool: Also found in lavender, roses, and neroli.
  7. Borneol: Also found in turmeric, thyme, and cinnamon.
  8. Geraniol: Also found in roses, citronella, and geraniums.
  9. Eucalyptol: Also found in wormwood, bay leaves, and eucalyptus.
  10. Terpinolene: Also found in apples, sage, and juniper.
  11. Pinene: Also found in pine, dill, and rosemary.
  12. Terpineol: Also found in pine, lilacs, and lapsang souchong.

So What Are Cannabinoids Anyway?

Cannabinoids are naturally occurring compounds found in the cannabis plant. Cannabinoids interact with particular cannabinoid receptors present on the surface of body cells to exert their effects. 

These receptors are found in different parts of our nervous system and brain. In essence, cannabinoids influence the endocannabinoid system (ECS), a unique cell-signaling system found in all mammals. 

Cannabinoids can be classified into phytocannabinoids, which are plant-based and synthetic cannabinoids manufactured artificially.  

The common cannabinoids are the phytocannabinoids THC or tetrahydrocannabinol, the psychoactive compound in cannabis, and CBD (or cannabidiol). 

There are 100+ distinct cannabinoids present in the cannabis plant, each with different therapeutic effects.

Image of Cannabidiol CBD vape cart. What Are Cannabinoids?

Cannabidiol (CBD)

Key facts

  • CBD, unlike THC, is non-psychoactive.
  • CBD stimulates the release of endocannabinoids in our body’s endocannabinoid system (ECS).
  • CBD is a natural product whose content varies with each product. Note: cannabinoids are naturally found in plants (as phytocannabinoids )  and our bodies (as endocannabinoids).

Cannabidiol is the major cannabinoid in cannabis with non-intoxicating effects on our body and mind. CBD is potent at the trichomes from which it’s extracted into the oil. It’s available in various forms for consumption, such as a capsule or oil (taken orally), as a cream (for topical application), or as a dried flower and vape oil for inhalation.

scientific diagram of CBD. What Are Cannabinoids

How CBD Works

CBD works by increasing or improving the production of endocannabinoids in our bodies. 

Cannabidiol acts as an inhibitor to enzymes that regulate or destroy the body’s endocannabinoids. This action increases the endocannabinoids circulating in our body hence improving our physical state. 

CBD also affects;

  • Serotonin levels that influence mood and stress.
  • Orphan receptors that modulate blood pressure and bone density
  • Vanilloid receptors that influence pain perception and inflammation.
  • Adenosine, which helps with sleep.

CBD Content

The CBD content is also the potency of CBD in a product. It’s expressed as a percentage of milligrams per gram in cannabis. For example, 10 % CBD on a package means 100 milligrams of CBD per gram of cannabis. 

It’s advisable to always check for the CBD content and if the CBD is sourced from federally licensed producers.

THC  Tetrahydrocannabinol

Key facts

  • THC is psychoactive, and though it can be used as a remedy for various conditions, taking it in high amounts can have harmful effects on the user.
  • The THC content or potency is indicated on the label of a cannabis product.
  • Among the many cannabinoids in the cannabis plant, THC is the one majorly linked to the intoxicating effects of cannabis. When cannabis is fresh, THC is in its inactive form THCA (tetrahydrocannabinolic acid). When cannabis is heated, dried, or cured, THCA drops off, and THC is activated.
thc diagram. what are cannabinoids?

How THC works

THC binds with cannabinoid receptors in our brains and central nervous systems to cause its euphoric and psychedelic effects.  

Moreover, it helps maintain homeostatic balance and activates immune system response. 

THC also interacts with the body’s ECS that consists of the following parts;

  1. Cannabinoid receptors- consist of two receptors CB1 and CB2, found in the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system. The CB1 receptors bind with THC to enhance its psychoactive effects while CB2 receptors influence the immune system.
  2. Endocannabinoids- They act as messengers in ECS receptors. They carry messages between cells. THC works similarly, temporarily replacing the body’s endocannabinoids to produce different effects. 

Its effects vary by strain and method of consumption(such as vaping or ingesting oils). 

THC Potency

The THC content is also the potency of THC in a product. It’s expressed as a percentage of milligrams per gram in cannabis. For example, 10 % THC on a package means 100 milligrams of THC per gram of cannabis. It’s unlikely to find a dried flower with 100%THC; 33% is typically the highest potency available. 

Usually, products with 17% – 20% are labeled strong. Remember, consuming large doses of THC can have undesired effects on your wellbeing.

Consider using low THC products or have an equal ratio of THC to CBD to help curb the intoxicating effects of THC. 

Otherwise, taking regulated THC levels can help with relaxation, euphoria, creativity, and increased energy. 

It’s advisable to always check for the THC content and if the THC is sourced from federally licensed producers.

What Are The Key Parts of The Cannabis Plant?

Cannabis can be a complicated plant with a variety of cultivars but what are the key parts of the cannabis plant?

Commercial cannabis is extracted from the female species (which have a long skinny stem and large fan leaves).

Nevertheless, cannabis is dioecious, which means it can be male or female. Notably, the male and female reproductive organs are found on different plants.

Only the female species fully blossoms from the pre-flower (also found in the male) into a bud that can be harvested, packaged, and smoked! The bud or flowering tip has high concentrations of cannabinoids  (chemical compounds responsible for the effects of cannabis). 

There are 6 different parts of the cannabis plant. Each part has a different function and relationship with the plant as a whole.

The 6 Different Parts of The Cannabis Plant

fan leaf part of cannabis plant. marijuana dispensary ajax pickering

1. Fan leaf

It’s the largest type of leaf found in the cannabis plant. The leaf is responsible for photosynthesis (making food), transpiration, and CO2 uptake in the plant. Interestingly, although they have become the symbol of cannabis, they only produce trace amounts of cannabinoids.

cola part of cannabis plant. buy legal weed in ajax cannabis dispensary.

2. Cola

Cola is a cluster of buds that tightly grow together and can even appear as one large bud. They have the highest concentration of cannabinoids.

At the very top of the cannabis plant, we have the main cola or apical bud.

bracts from cannabis plant. buy weed near me in toronto

3. Bracts

Bracts house the female reproductive parts. They are green tear-shaped leaves covered in resin glands that produce high concentrations of cannabinoids in the plant.

what are Trichomes in weed?

4. Trichomes

They are small mushroom-shaped, translucent glands on the surface of cannabis flowers and leaves. They release a resin (rich in terpenes, flavonoids, and cannabinoids), which the plant uses as protection against predators.

Pistils in cannabis plant. cannabis dispensary in Ajax Pickering to buy weed in Toronto.

5. Pistil

The pistil is a part of the female reproductive system consisting of an ovule with two protruding stigmas. The stigmas are thin hairs extending from the female’s bract to catch pollen from the male plants. Despite the stunning colors of stigmas, they do not affect the budding flower’s potency and taste. However, they are important for the reproduction cycle.

calyx part of the cannabis plant. marijauna weed shop pot store ajax.

6. Calyx

The calyx is a translucent layer over the ovule at the flower’s base. The calyx is covered by the bract that encapsulates the female reproductive parts.

What Are The Different Types of Cannabis Plants?

Did you know that there are four different types of cannabis plants?

The common cannabis plant types are Cannabis Sativa, Cannabis Indica and another lesser-known type is Cannabis Ruderalis. 

Each breed is thought to have different properties. For example, some may cultivate the Sativa type for its energetic effects, while others grow the Indica type for its associated calming effects. 

Currently, there are hundreds of cannabis strains that can be bred for their unique characteristics that target the particular needs of consumers.

Here are the four types of cannabis plants you need to know when buying weed in Toronto.

Cannabis Plant Type 1: Sativa

The Sativa is a tall species that grows to about 25 feet. It has long, serrated light green leaves. Sativa is grown for industrial use and can be regulated to meet the less than 0.3% THC level standard.

Cannabis Plant Type 2: Indica 

Cannabis indica is a fast-growing cannabis plant due to its short flowering cycles. Moreover, they tend to produce more yield thanks to their thick compact buds. They are also short compared to Sativa with thick green leaves.

Cannabis Plant Type 3: Ruderalis

Ruderalis is a hardy cannabis species grown in the cold mountains. It’s short and stalky with light green leaves. It’s an auto-flowering breed that makes it good breeders. Moreover, it’s common to find it as a hybrid in the market.

Cannabis Plant Type 4: Hybrids

Modern cultivation and breeding of cannabis have allowed for the emergence of new varieties. Leveraging the three primary varieties above, breeders have managed to produce strains with different characteristics. 

The aim of creating hybrids is to combine the positive characteristics from the different strains to produce the desired effects for consumers.